Chapter 12 – Sexually Transmissible Infections (STIs)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the causative agent of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The virus is transmitted by vaginal and anal sex, infected blood or blood products, donated organs, use of contaminated needles and vertically from mother to child primarily at birth and via breast milk.

Transmission of HIV in Australia has been and continues to be mainly through sex between men. In the last 5 years, there has been a decline in the rates of new diagnoses of HIV infections, mainly due to decreasing notifications in MSM. While transmission of HIV continues to occur primarily amongst MSM, certain sub-populations have not seen as marked or sustained a fall in acquisition rates (including heterosexuals, Asian-born MSM and indigenous Australians), and the public health response to notifications in these groups requires further attention.(11), (44)

Reductions in vertical transmission rates have been noted as well. In a recent reporting period (2013-2017), among the 191 babies born in Australia to women with HIV (PLWHIV), 1% of newborns were diagnosed with HIV, compared with 27% between 1993 -1997.(42) Most of this reduction is because of universal antenatal HIV testing and early use of antiretroviral drugs during pregnancy ... Buy now


Buy now


Buy now