Chapter 12 – Sexually Transmissible Infections (STIs)

Hepatitis B

Approximately 233, 947 (1 per cent) of Australians had chronic hepatitis B in 2017.(11) Of these, 21% were born in northeast Asia, 17% in southeast Asia and 11% were Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.(11) Most of those acquiring hepatitis B virus (HBV) overseas were infected at birth or in early childhood. There are also higher rates of hepatitis B in men who have sex with men, inmates of correctional facilities, and injecting drug users.

Since 2000, there has been a universal neonatal vaccination program for hepatitis B in Australia, with a school catch-up program. Therefore most young people (born after 1990) should have been vaccinated against hepatitis B. Rates of new hepatitis B infections have declined in Australia in the last 10 years and in 2017 there were 6,102 newly diagnosed infections.(11)Β 

In 2017 it was estimated that 36% of people with hepatitis B in Australia remain undiagnosed, so there is an important role for serological testing as part of STI screening. Testing for confirmation of vaccination status is also important because many young adults will have missed the booster vaccination in high school.

Of those known to have hepatitis B, only 8% were receiving treatment. Hence, ... Buy now

History

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Examination

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Investigations

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Management

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Contact tracing

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