Chapter 12 – Sexually Transmissible Infections (STIs)

Chlamydia

Chlamydia is a bacterial infection caused by chlamydia trachomatis. It was the most common notifiable infection in Australia in 2017, with 100, 775 notified cases in Australia.(11)

The prevalence of chlamydia in Australia is estimated to be 427 /100, 000; however, some subpopulations have higher prevalence rates. The latest figures regarding chlamydia infections in 2017 from the Kirby Annual Surveillance Report reveal:

The age standardised rate of chlamydia infections for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people was 1193.9/100, 000, compared with 352/100, 000 for non-Indigenous people. Chlamydia infection rates were 394.9/100, 000 for males and 441.8/100, 000 for females. Higher rates in women may be due, in part, to more testing occurring in women. 73 percent of notified cases were in the 15-29 year age group.(11)

Chlamydia can cause lower genital tract pathology (urethritis, cervicitis) and upper genital tract pathology (pelvic inflammatory disease, epidydimo-orchitis) and can infect the pharyngeal, anorectal and conjunctival mucosa. The contribution of oral sex to chlamydia transmission is unclear; routine testing of the oropharynx is not currently recommended in heterosexual people but is now recommended for gay men and other MSM.

Full details of the clinical presentation (when symptomatic) of chlamydia, as well as testing and treatment ... Buy now

History

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Examination

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Investigations

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Management

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Contact tracing

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