Chapter 6 – The Bladder and the Pelvic Floor


Haematuria, the presence of red blood cells in the urine, may be detected on urinalysis (microscopic or non-visible) or be visible to the naked eye (macroscopic, gross or visible). Guidelines often further differentiate on the basis of whether microscopic haematuria is symptomatic or asymptomatic.

Associated symptoms and signs may give clues to the cause:

lower urinary tract symptoms such as dysuria, frequency, urgency any other pain, e.g. flank, pelvic other indicators of systemic illness, e.g. nausea, oedema, fevers, malaise for gross haematuria, ask the patient whether this has occurred in isolation or on multiple occasions; when during the urine stream is the blood seen; presence of any clots; and if the patient has undergone any recent urological procedures ... Buy now

Causes of haematuria

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Further investigations

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