Chapter 7 – Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and Other Disorders of the Menstrual Cycle

Congenital abnormalities of the genital tract

Congenital abnormalities of the female reproductive tract include a wide range of deviations from normal anatomy and are rare.(54, 55) They may present early at birth, with abnormalities of the external genital tract urogenital sinus, cloaca, or ambiguous genitalia, or later at adolescence, presenting with amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, inability to insert a tampon or have sexual intercourse, or reproductive failure.(54)

Later presentations are typical of abnormalities of the Müllerian tract. Müllerian anomalies occur in approximately 7 per cent of girls,(56) and result from failure of fusion or canalisation of the müllerian tract. When categorizing causes of congenital abnormalities of the genital tract, it is best to consider the causes as obstructive or non-obstructive.

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Obstructive abnormalities

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Obstructive anomaly with normal menstruation

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Congenital uterine anomalies

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